2012年3月26日 星期一

Shao Dan, Remote Homeland, Recovered Borderland: Manchus, Manchoukuo, and Manchuria, 1907-1985

Remote Homeland, Recovered Borderland addresses a long-ignored issue in the existing studies of community construction: How does the past failure of an ethnic people to maintain sovereignty over their homeland influence their contemporary reconfigurations of ethnic and national identities? To answer this question, Shao Dan focuses on the Manzus, the second largest non-Han group in contemporary China, whose cultural and historical ancestors, the Manchus, ruled China from 1644 to 1912. Based on deep and rigorous empirical research, Shao analyzes the major forces responsible for the transformation of Manchu identity from the ruling group of the Qing empire to the minority of minorities in China today: the de-territorialization and provincialization of Manchuria in the late Qing, the remaking of national borders and ethnic boundaries during the Sino-Japanese contestation over Manchuria, and the power of the state to re-categorize borderland populations and ascribe ethnic identity in post-Qing republican states.

Within the first half of the twentieth century, four regimes—the Qing empire under the Manchu royal clan, the Republic of China under the Nationalist Party, Manchuokuo under the Japanese Kanto Army, and the People’s Republic of China under the Communist Party—each grouped the Manchus into different ethnic and national categories while re-positioning Manchuria itself on their political maps in accordance with their differing definitions of statehood. During periods of state succession, Manchuria was transformed from the Manchu homeland in the Qing dynasty to an East Asian borderland in the early twentieth century, before becoming China’s territory recovered from the Japanese empire. As the transformation of territoriality took place, the hard boundaries of the Manchu community were reconfigured, its ways of self-identification reformed, and the space for its identity representations redefined.

Taking the borderland approach, Remote Homeland goes beyond the single-country focus and looks instead at regional and cross-border perspectives. It is a study of China, but one that transcends traditional historiographies. As such, it will be of interest to scholars of modern China, Japanese empire, and Northeast Asian history, as well as to those engaged in the study of borderlands, ethnic identity, nationalism, and imperialism.

20 illus., 5 maps





Part I: Remote Homeland, Lost Empire
1 Remote Homeland, Contested Borderland: The Qing Empire, Banner People, and Manchuria
2 Between Empire and Nation: The 1911 Revolution, Manchus, and Manchuria

Part II: Contested Borderland, Redefined Identity
3 Legitimizing Statehood, Revising History: Manchoukuo between Japan and the RoC
4 Ethnic Harmony, Colonial Reality: Manchus, Manchoukuo, and the RoC
5 Historicizing the Manchus, Deterritorializing Manchuria: Ethnology and Borderland Studies in the   RoC
6 Redefining the Manzu, Remapping Ethnic Autonomy: State and Scholars in the PRC

Part III: Experiencing Borderlands, Re-understanding Homeland
7 A Trial of Treason: Aisin Gioro Xianyu and Identity Dilemma
8 Tales of Two Empires: The Conquerors, the Colonized, and the Heroes


Shao Dan is associate professor in the Department of East Asian Languages and Cultures, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

2012年3月16日 星期五

世上孤本: 滿漢合璧《滿洲實錄》






請參看:三體《滿洲實錄》圖冊 ;《內閣藏本滿文老檔》; 滿文內國史院檔簡介 ; 從gurun一字看穆麟多夫滿文拼寫法


2012年3月13日 星期二

Franz H. Michael, Ex-Professor of University of Washington, 1907-1992

Professor Franz Michael is famous for his work on early Ch'ing studies. He authored The Origin of Manchu Rule in China: Frontier and Bureaucracy as Interacting Forces in the Chinese  Empire, a pioneering work on the Manchus' state-building during the pre-conqeuest era. Below is an obituary written by Paula Bock of Seattle Times Company and published on September 4, 1992 .

Franz Michael, University of Washington Ex-Professor With First-Hand Expertise On Asia

Professor Franz Michael, distinguished scholar of Chinese history and former University of Washington professor, died last month after a lifetime of teaching and research in Europe, Asia and the United States. He was 85.

Professor Michael was well-known for his work in Asian studies, which included interviewing Tibet's Dalai Lama and Chiang Kai-shek, the late leader of the Chinese Nationalist Party.

Family members recall Professor Michael's love of the state's mountains, where he enjoyed skiing and hiking. At age 70, he climbed Mount Rainier.

Professor Michael was born in Freiburg-Breisgau, Germany, and studied history and law at the universities of Freiburg, Hamburg and Berlin.

In 1934, Germany sent Professor Michael to China as a diplomatic attache. But by the time he arrived, Hitler had decreed no Jews could hold government jobs. Professor Michael was barred from serving in the diplomatic corps because his father's side of the family was Jewish.

Instead, Professor Michael joined the faculty of National Chekiang University in Hangchow. When the Japanese invaded China a few years later, Professor Michael was among the faculty and students who retreated inland, traveling through regions ruled by bandits while holding classes whenever possible, said his daughter Ingrid Vera Osterhaug of Edmonds.

In return for food and lodging, faculty and students (led by the university's engineering professors) helped villagers build badly needed dikes and small bridges.

Professor Michael emigrated to the United States in 1939 and joined the faculty at Johns Hopkins University.

In 1942, he set up a U.S. Army Asian-language training program at the University of Washington. He taught Chinese history and government courses at UW for 22 years and served as chairman of the Modern Chinese history program.

In 1964, he moved to Washington, D.C., where he joined the faculty at George Washington University and directed the Institute for Sino-Soviet Studies and National Defense Education Center.

After retiring, Professor Michael served as an academic guide for the Smithsonian Institute on trips to Tibet and China, where he sometimes bumped into former students while walking on the Great Wall.

In many of his books, Professor Michael counters the common view of China as a "feudal" society by analyzing the scholar-gentry elite and the country's Confucian-Buddhist background.

His later work focuses on modern China, speaking strongly against communism, Marxism, Leninism and the fate of the country under Mao.

In addition to his daughter, Professor Michael is survived by his wife, Dolores Michael of Carmel, Calif.; his former wife, Anita Michael of Seattle; a son, Peter Michael of Seattle; a brother, Professor W.F. Michael of Austin, Texas; five grandchildren and five great-grandchildren.

2012年3月6日 星期二


村上信明: 清朝の蒙古旗人 その実像と帝国統治における役割 (ブックレット〈アジアを学ぼう〉 4) , 風響社, 2007