2011年11月29日 星期二

儒化滿人:愛新覺羅.毓鋆



愛新覺羅.毓鋆 (圖片來源:毓老紀念網頁)



愛新覺羅.毓鋆 (1906年10月27日-2011年3月20日),外界都敬稱「毓老」而不稱其名。他說:「鋆,音ㄩㄣˊ,《五音集韻》說:『鋆,金也』。《清史稿.文宗本紀》有文宗賜章鋆等二百三十九人進士及弟記載。我一生下來,按生辰年月日排五行,缺金,所以御賜『鋆』的嘉名。」

毓老乃清朝皇族後裔,源出於禮親王代善一脈,據云是和碩禮親王世鐸之孫,和碩禮親王誠厚之子。但毓老生前曾當面向弟子提及其父並非誠厚(張輝誠:《毓老真精神》,頁33, 46毓老四歲由母親親授四書,六歲開始進宮陪溥儀讀書,受業於陳寶琛、王國維、鄭孝胥、康有為、梁啟超等名儒,另有溥儀的外籍帝師莊士敦先生授以西洋學。




毓老重修永陵時,於赫圖阿拉創立啟運書院,圖為毓老親筆提字之門匾
(中正大學滿洲研究班林書寧攝影)


1971年愛新覺羅.毓鋆在台北開設「天德黌舍」(後改為「奉元書院」),從事私人講學,其門生有上萬人之多。毓老特別重視儒家思想教育,從《論語》、《孟子》、《中庸》、《大學》著手,冀望其授業的學生從外在的道德實踐,進而達到內心的從心所欲不踰矩,美國著名學者魏斐德 (Frederic Wakeman, Jr.)、包弼德 (Peter K. Bol)都曾授業其門下。毓老強調:「將來我們這個孔學,是要怎麼用這個孔學,不是怎麼講這個孔學,要懂得怎麼能用,就是證明看懂了。」毓老的一席話為傳統的中國儒學注入新的生命力。

然而,毓老是清朝皇族後裔,其滿洲人的身體所展現的卻是漢人的儒學文化。毓老的身體猶如一個認同協商的複雜場域,其中仍有很多有趣的故事可說。

(中正大學滿洲研究班吳冠倫撰稿,2012/9/29增補)

2011年11月19日 星期六

Denis Sinor與滿語研究

席諾教授,匈牙利人,授業於伯希和,內陸歐亞史專家,雖專精草原游牧帝國史,但50-60年代,對滿洲語言研究亦多有涉獵, 其業績如下:

1. "Introduction aux études mandjoues", T'oung Pao, 42 (1954), 70-100

2. "La langue mandjoue", Handbuch der Orientalistik, 5. Band: Altaistik, 3. Abschnitt: Tungusologie. Leiden-Köln, 1968, 267-280 [Asian Studies Research Institute Reprint Series, no. 9]

3. "La transcription du mandjou," Journal Asiatique, 237 (1949), 261-272

4. "Le verbe mandjou," Bulletin de la Société de linguistique de Paris, 45 (1949), 146-155

5. "La letteratura mancese," in O. Botto ed., Le letterature del mondo, vol. IV, Milano, 1969, 383-411

6. "Some Remaks on Manchu Poetry," Studies in South, East and Central Asia, Memorial Volume to the Late Professor Raghu Vira (Śata-Pitaka Series, vol. 74), New Delhi, 1968, 105-114

論文編號3,4,6 轉載於Essays in Comparative Altaic Linguistics (Indiana University Uralic and Altaic Series, 143), Bloomington, 1990.


(中正大學滿洲研究班甘德星)

───────────────────────────
下面是PIAC有關席諾教授生平的記錄:

Denis Sinor, 1916 – 2011
Professor Denis Sinor, one of the founding fathers of the Permanent International Altaistic Conference (PIAC) and serving to the PIAC as Secretary General for nearly half a century, was born in Hungary on April 17, 1916 and educated in Hungary, Switzerland, and France. Between 1939 and 1948, he held various teaching and research assignments in France. During World War II he rendered modest services to the French Resistance, and he joined the Free French Forces.

From 1948 to 1962 he taught at Cambridge University in the U.K. In 1962 he moved to Indiana University where he created the Department of Uralic and Altaic Studies, now Department of Central Eurasian Studies, of which he was Chairman from 1963 to1981. In 1967 he founded the Research Institute for Inner Asian Studies, which was renamed in 2006 The Denis Sinor Institute for Inner Asian Studies. From 1963 to 1988 he was Director of the Inner Asian and Uralic National Resource Center.

A former president of the American Oriental Society, Denis Sinor was active in various national and international scholarly societies in which he held positions of high international importance. He received two Guggenheim Fellowships as well as a number of prestigious grants. He was a Corresponding Member of the French Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres. Honors received include an Honorary Membership of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, an Honorary Professorship of the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, a doctorate honoris causa of the University of Szeged, Honorary Memberships of the Société Asiatique in Paris and the Societas Uralo-Altaica in Göttingen. He was awarded the Order of the Star of Hungary and the Commander’s Cross Order of Merit of the Republic of Hungary. He received the UNESCO 60th Anniversary Medal. The Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain created in his honor the Denis Sinor Medal for Inner Asian Studies.

Denis Sinor authored 8 books and more than 160 articles in Hungarian, French, English and German, and edited 14 books, many of these were translated into other languages. He contributed to various encyclopedias, including the Encyclopaedia Britannica. He served as editor of the Journal of Asian History since its inception in 1967, and also for the Indiana University Uralic and Altaic Series (over 174 volumes) and the Indiana University Oriental Series.
Denis Sinor is survived by a sister, a daughter, three grandchildren and four great-grandchildren.

[From Altaist.org:submitted on Wed, 2011-01-19]

2011年11月9日 星期三

不是豬狗:「阿其那、塞思黑的史語解讀」論文評述


中國歷史學會第46屆年會暨第九屆研究生論文討論會於11月5日(週六),假松山火車站佛光山台北道場舉行。大會邀請甘德星教授擔任文化大學博士生張華克論文的評論人,論文題目是:「阿其那、塞思黑的史語解讀」。

文中,張華克論證阿其那、塞思黑二詞即瘋癲之意。張華克所論故可成一家之言,不過,甘教授認為用滿謎來解讀阿其那、塞思黑二人的名字過於繁複曲折。雍正乃一極權君主,無掩飾顧忌之必要,故宜從宗人府檔案直接切入,較有可能求得阿其那、塞思黑二詞的原義。

阿其那,滿文作Akina;塞思黑,滿文作Seshe (滿文上諭檔)。塞思黑(seshe < seshembi),為厭惡之意,此與允禟八子皆得惡名曰下賤Fusixôn、醜陋Fecuhun、討厭Ubiyade、厭惡Eiimede、可惜Xaiiraqan、愚笨Dungki、糊塗Dusihiyen、愚昧Eiihun一致(滿文黑圖檔)。阿其那,其意不明,新名乃允禩聽命自改,且其子易名曰菩薩保,故縱是惡名,其惡應不若允禟者。雍正之所以要二人改名,目的在使其削籍離宗,而所改之名必惡,蓋元凶有必加惡名之先例故也(軍機處滿文錄副奏摺)。



(中正大學滿洲研究班甘德星)

2011年11月8日 星期二

「Mongγol~蒙古」一詞的來源與意義:「望建」河




甘德星教授於10/27-28日參加臺灣大學文學院與蒙古國立大學外語學院合辦之「元代以來漢蒙的歷史與文化」研討會,宣讀The Term “Mongγol” Revisited一文。文章擬就歷史文獻和蒙漢對音兩方面切入,以說明「蒙古」一詞乃源自蒙古的發源地「望建」河。

同場並有何啟龍博士發表的論文「元代蒙古文授時曆及其對蒙古記月的影響」。何博士曾隨甘教授習內陸歐亞史,復從蒙古史大家劉迎勝教授學,專攻蒙元史,是國人治蒙古學的後起之秀。



Key words: Mongol, Meng-wu, Ergüne River

2011年11月3日 星期四

研究書訊:《清代典章制度辭典》





出版社: 中國人民大學出版社; 第1版 (2011年7月1日)
叢書名: 國家清史編纂委員會·工具書叢刊
精裝: 880頁

本書包括清代典制的所有門類,諸如政制、機構、職官、銓選、任用、考核、獎懲、世職、土職、幕友、吏役、行政區劃、戶口、土地、賦役、稅課、財政、商貿、屯墾、荒政、鹽茶、銅政、幣制、漕運、兵制、兵器、軍備、八旗、郵驛、刑律、司法、建築、工程、作坊、陵寢、採捕、進貢、學校、科舉、禮樂、民族、部落、盟旗、宮庭、宗室、封爵、皇莊、官莊、內府、外務、海關、文書檔案等政治、軍事、經濟、文化、社會習俗等各方面的制度。有些雖不屬典章制度,但與典制有關的公文用語、專業用語、官場稱謂、皇家園囿、寺廟、節令風俗等名詞也適量輯入書內。